The disease burden across South Sudan - in an environment with little health infrastructure and extremely remote populations – is complex. Over two decades of civil war has left the health infrastructure of South Sudan very weak, with few trained health care professionals and access to the limited and under resourced facilities being a challenge for many.
Approximately 95% of South Sudan is endemic of malaria, with high transmission in the country throughout the year. This means there are currently 2,300,000 people are at risk of malaria across the country. Malaria accounts for 20-40% of all health facility visits, 30% of all hospital admissions, and is a leading cause of death. Malaria is also the leading cause of illness and death in children under five years in South Sudan. It also contributes to anaemia in children and is a common cause of absenteeism from school.
The impact of communicable diseases on young children is exacerbated by poor nutrition and a lack of access to basic health services. The infant mortality rate is one of the highest, standing at 102 per 1,000 live births, while the under-five mortality rate is 250 per 1,000 live births.