Resistance of malaria vectors to pyrethroid insecticides has been attributed to selection pressure from long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), and the use of chemicals in agriculture. The use of different classes of insecticides in combination or by rotation has been recommended for resistance management. The aim of this study was to understand the role of IRS with a carbamate insecticide in management of pyrethroid resistance.
Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from multiple sites in nine districts of Uganda (up to five sites per district). Three districts had been sprayed with bendiocarb. Phenotypic resistance was determined using standard susceptibility tests. Molecular assays were used to determine the frequency of resistance mutations. The kdrL1014S homozygote frequency in Anopheles gambiae s.s. was used as the outcome measure to test the effects of various factors using a logistic regression model. Bendiocarb coverage, annual rainfall, altitude, mosquito collection method, LLIN use, LLINs distributed in the previous 5 years, household use of agricultural pesticides, and malaria prevalence in children 2–9 years old were entered as explanatory variables.
Tests with pyrethroid insecticides showed resistance and suspected resistance levels in all districts except Apac (a sprayed district). Bendiocarb resistance was not detected in sprayed sites, but was confirmed in one unsprayed site (Soroti). Anopheles gambiae s.s. collected from areas sprayed with bendiocarb had significantly less kdr homozygosity than those collected from unsprayed areas. Mosquitoes collected indoors as adults had significantly higher frequency of kdrhomozygotes than mosquitoes collected as larvae, possibly indicating selective sampling of resistant adults, presumably due to exposure to insecticides inside houses that would disproportionately affect susceptible mosquitoes. The effect of LLIN use on kdr homozygosity was significantly modified by annual rainfall. In areas receiving high rainfall, LLIN use was associated with increased kdrhomozygosity and this association weakened as rainfall decreased, indicating more frequency of exposure to pyrethroids in relatively wet areas with high vector density.
This study suggests that using a carbamate insecticide for IRS in areas with high levels of pyrethroid resistance may reduce kdr frequencies in An. gambiae s.s.
Published in Malaria Journal
Country: UgandaKeywords: Malaria | Chemoprevention | Vector control | SDGs
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