Despite substantial reductions in malaria burden and improvement in case management, malaria remains a major public health challenge in the Asia-Pacific region. Residual malaria transmission (RMT) is the fraction of total transmission that persists after achievement of full operational coverage with effective insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs)/long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and/or indoor residual spray interventions. There is a critical need to standardise and share best practices for entomological, anthropological and product development investigative protocols to meet the challenges of RMT and elimination goals.
A systematic review was conducted to describe when and where RMT is occurring, while specifically targeting ownership and usage of ITN/LLINs, indoor residual spray application, insecticide susceptibility of vectors, and human and vector biting behaviour, with a focus on nighttime activities.
Sixty-six publications from 1995 to present met the inclusion criteria for closer review. Associations between local vector control coverage and use with behaviours of human and mosquito vectors varied by locality and circumstance. Consequently, the magnitude of RMT is insufficiently studied and analysed with sparse estimates of individual exposure in communities, insufficient or incomplete observations of ITN/LLIN use, and the local human population movement into and from high-risk areas.
This review identified significant gaps or deficiencies that require urgent attention, namely, developing standardised procedures and methods to estimate risk exposure beyond the peridomestic setting, analytical approaches to measure key human-vector interactions, and seasonal location-specific agricultural or forest use calendars and establishing the collection of longitudinal human and vector data close in time and location.
Published in The Journal of Infectious DiseasesCommunity delivery | Malaria | iCCM | Vector control | SDGs
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