The escalating dengue situation in Bangladesh has been emerging as a serious public health problem in terms of morbidity and mortality. Results of analysis of 40,476 cases of Bangladesh occurring during 2000–2017 indicated that 49.73% of the dengue cases occurred during the monsoon season (May–August) and 49.22% during the post-monsoon season (September–December). However, data also showed that, since 2014, these trends have been changing, and dengue cases have been reported during the pre-monsoon season. During 2015–2017, in the pre-monsoon season, the dengue cases were reported to be more than seven times higher compared to the previous 14 years. The findings closely correlate with those of the pre-monsoon Aedes vector survey which revealed the presence of high density of larva and pupa of the dengue vectors in the environment all the year round. In our study, climate changes, such as average rainfall, humidity, and temperature, after 2014, and rapid unplanned urbanization were the strong predictors of an imbalance in the existing ecology that has led to increase in dengue cases in 2016 and the emergence of the chikungunya virus for the first time in Bangladesh in 2017.
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