Treatment was sought for 77-98% of febrile children in both Uganda sites. Antimalarials were given to more than three quarters of children for whom treatment was sought. The proportion of febrile children treated with an antimalarial in the first 24 hours of onset fever varied between 36% and 61% across all rounds and no significant change was detected over time.
Similar proportions of cases were tested for malaria across all survey rounds in Uganda: 56-80% in Aduku and 30-65% in Butemba. The majority of diagnostic tests in the public and private facilities were by mRDTs in the Uganda sites. Most febrile children who were not tested for malaria after seeking treatment were given antimalarials throughout the four rounds (50-82%).
Treatment was sought for the majority of febrile children in Guba (70-84%), but the proportions were lower in Hembecho (42-61%). There was a general decline in the percentage of children that received antimalarials in Guba, while in Hembecho the proportions were lower in rounds 1 and 4. In both Ethiopia sites, P. vivax was a common infection treated with chloroquine according to the national policy, whereas artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) was used for P. falciparum infections.
Among children for whom treatment was sought, the majority (57-100%) received a diagnostic test (either mRDT or microscopy) and no significant differences were seen between rounds in each site. The majority of diagnostic tests in public facilities were based on microscopy in the Ethiopia sites.